Understanding the DNA Testing Categories and What They Can Reveal

Genes pass from parent to child, and so do genetic issues. A simple medical test makes it easy to determine minor and massive changes in the DNA structure and other components. The testing can indicate the disorder risk you get from your parents’ genes.

Different test categories are available to see the mutation changes. The doctor tests a pregnant woman’s hair strands, skin tissues, red blood cells, or amniotic fluid. It will confirm whether you have any genetic issues. It is quite simple to determine the state of the disorder, whether it is passing to the baby. This DNA test is done in a lab at a nominal price.

But before you consider this test, knowing its different types and what it shows about your health is better. You can gather plenty of information related to your genes with this test. If you are pregnant and have a gene-based disorder, you can easily know whether it will move to your newborn or has any complications. Therefore, it is vital to understand various detailed things about DNA testing.

Things that are Checked in Different Categories of DNA Tests

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  1. Genes – There is too much risk of having a disorder whenever mutations change. In this test, one can focus on a single, a group or entire DNA genes. It is important to check how your genes perform to detect any condition.
  2. Proteins – The activity of enzymes can be determined by analyzing the proteins in your cells. The particular test can check the chemical reactions happening in the cells. Whenever any change occurs in the protein structure, the DNA will change, a sign of conditions.
  3. Chromosomes – The long strings in the DNA structure are studied for chromosome tests. If there is any manipulation in the order of mutations, it is due to a disorder. It is vital to determine if there is another chromosome copy.

DNA Testing Categories

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1.   Prenatal

This test is done when you are pregnant and lets you know the mutation manipulation in the fetus’s chromosomes. But it is hard to detect all condition types. But knowing whether the baby is born with any disorder is simple. Due to the family’s gene history, the newly-born baby is at risk of getting a disorder. Therefore, it is suggested to go for this process to know if the baby is safe from any condition.

2.   Diagnostic

It is a confirmation test of whether an individual has a disorder or chromosome issue. But one cannot detect condition types with it. During pregnancy, this test confirms the diagnosis at any time to determine the signs of a disorder in the baby.

3.   Carrier

This test reveals whether an individual carries the mutated gene copy but shows no symptoms. A mutated gene copy can be the reason for autosomal recessive disease, which happens due to family history.

It passes on from one individual to another in an autosomal recessive way. A child gets a copy of the mutation from his parents. But if you know about this disorder, you must go for this test and know whether your kids have the same risk in the future.

4.   Preimplantation

With the help of ART, preimplantation testing is performed to detect genetic mutations in the embryo. It is the same case as IVF. The doctor tests a few cells from embryos to check the mutations. To initiate the pregnancy, the implantation of embryos is done only when there are no uterine mutations.

5.   Newborn Screening

When a baby is born, the screening is done immediately after birth. It helps in determining conditions related to hormones, genes, and metabolism. The treatment starts quickly after the screening process. The screening is done to check over 35 disorders in a baby.

6.   Predictive

This test also checks the gene changes and determines whether you will suffer from any disorder in your future life. The doctor can check the signs of cancer in the breasts. The possibility of the disorder can be determined even if you have no signs. But this test comes with no 100% certainty. The error chances are also there; discussing it with your doctor before considering this test is vital.

7.   Y-DNA

This test aims to determine the patrilineal ancestry of an individual with a Y chromosome. The male line can be checked through this testing process. Only half the population have Y chromosomes, i.e., all the males worldwide.

This chromosome is transferred from the father to his son. It works as evidence that your child belongs to you. This test can detect the entire ancestry, even if it was a thousand years ago. With little changes, the Y chromosome passed from one generation to another.

8.   Mitochondrial

It helps to detect female ancestry, also known as matrilineal ancestry, by checking the DNA in mitochondria in a male or female. The mother’s egg passes mitochondria to her child without the father’s mitochondria. Everyone can undergo this test, including all the males and females. It also works as evidence that your child belongs to you.

9.   Autosomal

An autosome is formed with 22 chromosome pairs, which can be analyzed in your DNA. Through the details, one can easily detect distant relatives or ancestors. It reveals more details about the ethnicity. You can easily identify the locations of all your ancestors residing globally.

Final Thoughts

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DNA tests can easily determine whether the child belongs to his father or mother. One can detect the risk of getting any condition. In a DNA, three things are checked, i.e., chromosomes, protein structures, and genes. It is crucial to do the testing to keep your baby safe from different disorders and treat them before it gets too late.

Any change can be a sign of getting a disorder with or without treatment. Therefore, it is a must to consider all the mentioned tests to keep your baby safe from diseases. You must understand different DNA testing categories and go ahead with the one suggested by the physician.